Rom 5:12-21 One Man

Jul 5, 2020 // By:Dave // No Comment

verses 12-21 deal with the basis of Justification for all through one man, Christ.

the phrase applied to this section is “type

Adam is a type (a pattern) of Christ.
(not in his disobedience but in the fact that his action had ramifications …

eternal impact upon the human race … just like Christ did.

one commentary phrased the basic premise like this:

If each one of us had a separate debt contract to honor and each of us broke their contracts,

the contractor would have to deal with each one of our debts separately regarding the breach of contract

and open a different negotiation for each one of us

but

if we are all signed under one contract, then the contractor can deal with all of us at the same time with one signature and one payment.

through Adam’s sin, we are all dead, but we are all signed on the same debt contract

and Jesus’ one signature can be “paid in full” … once.

12 Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned —

13 for until the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.

14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.

15 But the free gift is not like the transgression. For if by the transgression of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many.

16 The gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned; for on the one hand the judgment arose from one transgression resulting in condemnation, but on the other hand the free gift arose from many transgressions resulting in justification.

17 For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.

18 So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all men.

19 For as through the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the One the many will be made righteous.

20 The Law came in so that the transgression would increase; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more,

21 so that, as sin reigned in death, even so grace would reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Let’s begin:

12 Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned —

three facts:

  1. sin entered the world through the disobedience of one man
  2. death is the direct result of sin
  3. death came to all men through this open door of sin

13 for until the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.

does this mean that no one was in trouble until Moses passed down the 10 commandments ?

sin predates the law (Mosaic Law).  God is not going to say” you broke my 7th commandment before He has given it”  but He will say “you did something you know was wrong”

In 1 Timothy 2:14 he makes the point that Adam, unlike Eve, was not deceived, but sinned deliberately

(1Tim. 2:14 And it was not Adam who was deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression)

Gen 3:6
So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree desirable to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate. She also gave to her husband with her, and he ate.

However, 

  • Eve being deceived does not necessarily imply that she is to blame for original sin.
  • it might be tempting to think the opposite—that because Eve was deceived while Adam knew full well what he was doing that his sin is worse, and he should be blamed. 
  • However, the Bible never states that Adam’s sin was worse than Eve’s. 
  • Both were punished for their sin (Genesis 3:16–19).

it’s not a matter of who sinned worse …

AS THE LEADER IT WAS ADAM’S RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT AND PROVIDE FOR HIS FAMILY.

Adam was created first from the dust of the ground, and Eve was created from a rib taken from Adam’s side (Genesis 2:7, 21–22). From these verses and others in Genesis 1–3 it is clear that the 

  • husband was created to be the leader in the marital relationship and that the 
  • wife was created to be the helper (Genesis 2:18). 

As the leader it was Adam’s responsibility to protect and provide for his family. This leadership role was clearly demonstrated when God talked with Adam and Eve following their sin. Even though Eve sinned before Adam, God questioned Adam first (Genesis 3:9). This was because of the leadership role God ordained for husbands in marriage. 

Adam, as the leader of the family, was held responsible, not only for his own sin of eating from the tree, but also because he did not provide adequate protection for his wife, allowing her to sin.

In the New Testament, Adam is clearly presented as both progenitor and representative of all mankind. The following passages state that Adam is the person through whom sin and resulting death entered the world:

1 Cor 15:21-22 

For since by man came death, by Man also came the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ all shall be made alive.

And so it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. (1 Corinthians 15:21–22, 45)

Judging from the use of “for” at the beginning of v.13, these two verses are intended to support and explicate v.12. The point is made that from Adam to Moses the law was not yet given, so sin was not present in the sense of transgression. Men did not have a charge from God similar to that which Adam had and violated. But the very fact that death was regnant during this period is proof that there was sin to account for it, seeing that death is the consequence of sin. The sin in view was the sin of Adam, which involved all his descendants. Death in this case rather obviously means physical death, which suggests that the same is true in v.12. This agrees with Paul’s treatment of the subject of death in 1 Corinthians 15 

Even though there was no “10 Commandments” to define sin until Moses received them, There is still the reign of death because of Adam.
disobeyed God (and he was not deceived as Eve was)

distrusted God’s provision (and trusted his wife’s provision against God’s command.
failed to protect his wife from death, and chose to join her in being dead

dead to God

Spiritual death is best understood as alienation or separation of our souls from God. Sin separates us from God, the source and fountain of spiritual life and light (Ephesians 2:12). The spiritually dead sit in darkness and in the shadow of death (Luke 1:79). Because God is holy and sin is offensive to God, our spiritual death is not an amicable separation, but a hostile one (Romans 8:7–8). Scripture describes the spiritually dead as enemies of God (Romans 5:10). The penalty for sin is death (Romans 3:23), and therefore the spiritually dead are cursed and condemned for failing to keep God’s law (Galatians 3:10), and await God’s wrath (Romans 2:5). They are, in fact, dead men walking.

To be spiritually dead means to be insensible to the things of God and ignorant of spiritual realities (1 Corinthians 2:14). A spiritually dead person 

  • does not love God and 
  • cannot please God (Romans 8:8). If fact, they want to please themselves, not God (Philippians 2:21). 
  • They may appear to perform good deeds from an external perspective in that their deeds conform to the letter of the law. However, these deeds do not conform to the spirit of the law because they are not motivated by a desire to please and glorify God (1 Corinthians 10:31).
  • can look beautiful on the outside and inside be filled with death, like whitewashed tombs (Matthew 23:27–28). 

Scripture gives us a picture of what it means to be spiritually dead

  • separated from God, 
  • hostile to God, 
  • cursed and condemned 
  • insensible and ignorant of God’s love.

Adam “led his family” into death.  We are his family.

This is why Jesus said we needed to be “born again

born

[NIV Greek]

1164   [1080]   γεννάω, gennaō, v.  [1181]. to become the father of; to bear, give birth to; (pass.) to be conceived, born

[Bible Words]

BORN

The OT inaugurates the use of the image of spiritual birth. The NT amplifies it, explaining what it means to be “born again” and “born of God.”

OT 1. “Born” in the OT

NT 3. Being born again

4. Being born of God

OT — 1. “Born” in the OT. The word “born” is used to translate one of several forms of the Hebrew word yalad, which describes the act of giving birth. But this word is used in a variety of other senses as well. For instance, 

yalad can indicate the male role in conception (Ge 4:18; 10:8; Pr 23:22). It is often used figuratively. At times, Scripture speaks of Israel as having been given birth by God, in the sense of having been given life and provided with care during infancy (Dt 32:18). Thus the idea of being “born again” is implicit in the OT and should not have surprised Nicodemus as it did when Jesus used the phrase (Jn 3).

The grammatical form that yalad takes makes it clear whether the writer means actual parentage or another, but equally close, relationship. The Hiphil stem of 

yalad is also used to indicate paternity, and the Qal stem is used when some other relationship is intended. Thus when Ps 2:7 announces, “You are my Son; today I have become your Father,” the text does not suggest a point in time when the Son “began.” The Qal stem here affirms the uniqueness of the relationship between the incarnate Jesus and the Father—a relationship not definable by parentage alone, for the Father and the Son are both God; they are one from eternity (cf. Heb 1:3-5).

2. When does human life begin?. One modern question is raised by the meaning of the root yalad, indicating the birth process. Does this imply that life begins at birth? Or does life begin at conception?

The best answer is suggested by turning to another Hebrew word, beten, which indicates one’s visceral parts and often means “womb.” A significant statement from the Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (ed. R. Laird Harris [Chicago: Moody Press, 1980]), 1:103, brings the issue into focus: “The references to God in connection with beten indicate that he is the one who shapes and forms the fetus (Job 3:3-11; 31:18; Ps 139:13; Jer 1:5; cf. Ps 51:15), who brings the child forth from the womb (Ps 22:9; Isa 46:3) and superintends its life from the earliest moments (Ps 71:6; Isa 49:1).” The fetus has been a person from conception, and God’s hand rests lovingly on a child before, as well as during and after, its birth.

NT — 3. Being born again. The Greek word for giving birth is gennao, which can mean to literally “beget” or “bring forth” but is often used figuratively in the NT.

The phrase “born again” is found in John 3, in Jesus’ discussion with the religious leader Nicodemus. Jesus makes it clear that being “born again” describes the action God’s Spirit takes when he transforms human beings (3:6). Peter uses the same language, reminding believers, “You have been born again, not of perishable seed, but of imperishable, through the living and enduring word of God” (1 Pe 1:23). (See LIFE AND DEATH)

4. Being born of God. This phrase is also found primarily in John’s writings (Jn 1:13; 1 Jn 2:29; 3:9; 4:7; 5:1, 4,18). The spiritual rebirth believers experience does not come through any natural process. God is the actor who effects the new birth in those who believe and receive the Son (Jn 1:12-13). New birth makes us children of God (v. 13) and leads to moral transformation. One who is born of God does what is right (1 Jn 2:29). While we may fail at times, no one born of God “keeps on sinning.” God’s life is planted within our reborn personality. “No one who is born of God will continue to sin, because God’s seed remains in him; he cannot go on sinning, because he has been born of God” (1 Jn 3:6, 9; cf. 1 Jn 5:18).

Another expression of the new life we receive from God is found in our love for one another (1 Jn 4:7; 5:1-2). Love and purity of life are sure to follow new birth, for God’s own life swells within the twice born. We who have become God’s children through faith are destined to grow into Jesus’ likeness.

again (494x)  G0509 (14x)

[NIV Greek]

540   [509]   ἄνωθεν, anōthen, adv. pl.  [539]. from above; from the beginning; again, anew

[Bible Words]

NT — 3. Being born again. The Greek word for giving birth is gennao, which can mean to literally “beget” or “bring forth” but is often used figuratively in the NT.

The phrase “born again” is found in John 3, in Jesus’ discussion with the religious leader Nicodemus. Jesus makes it clear that being “born again” describes the action God’s Spirit takes when he transforms human beings (3:6). Peter uses the same language, reminding believers, “You have been born again, not of perishable seed, but of imperishable, through the living and enduring word of God” (1 Pe 1:23). (See LIFE AND DEATH)

14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.

death reigned over those who had not sinned like Adam did ?  how ?

The depravity of man is foundational here.

depravity = corruption.
(man’s inability to fix himself

and

man’s inability to recognize he cannot fix himself

man’s inability to ask for help to be fixed

This depravity (spiritual death) reigned from Adam’s sin throughout the entire human race long before Moses brought the law. (even without committing Adam’s sin, all men sin (even without the law to point out the details, or the degree)

Gen 1:

11-12 plants bring forth more after their own kind

21 creatures of the water make more after after their own kind

24-25 creatures of the earth make more after their own kind

26  make man in our image, 

28 be fruitful and multiply after your own kind)

Adam and Eve can only make spiritually dead children because they are spiritually dead.

Type of Him who was to come ?

15 But the free gift is not like the transgression. For if by the transgression of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many.

16 The gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned; for on the one hand the judgment arose from one transgression resulting in condemnation, but on the other hand the free gift arose from many transgressions resulting in justification.

17 For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.

18 So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all men.

19 For as through the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the One the many will be made righteous.

20 The Law came in so that the transgression would increase; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more,

21 so that, as sin reigned in death, even so grace would reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

wow !!   lets see if we can pull this apart and sort out the statements:

parallelism in verses 17-19 comparing the first one man to the second one man

17  

act of one man, first Adam; death reigns over all through him, 

act of the second Adam, Christ, we reign in life through Him 

18 

one transgression of the first adam = condemnation

one act of righteousness of the second Adam = justification

19 

one act of disobedience = many made sinners

one act of obedience = many will be made righteous

back up to verse

16

judgement resulted from one transgression, falls upon the many

much more (not an equal amount, but over abundance)

grace of God resulted from Christ, given to the many

20  law came in that transgression would increase … introducing the Mosaic Law

came in = added to

transgression would increase

EBC Paul says the law “was added.” Similar language is used in Galatians 3:19, where the law is regarded as something temporary, designed to disclose the transgression aspect of sin and prepare the way for the coming of Christ by demonstrating the dire need for his saving work. This function of the law-viz., to increase transgression-was not recognized in rabbinic Judaism . From the Sermon on the Mount, however, it appears that Jesus sought to apply the law in just this way, to awaken a sense of sin in those who fancied they were keeping the law tolerably well but had underestimated its searching demands and the sinfulness of their own hearts.

law highlights our sinfulness (we are all already totally depraved and spiritually dead)

adding:

Paul insists that only where sin is seen in its maximum expression can divine grace truly be appreciated. “Grace increased all the more.”

hence verse 20  the law came in to reveal our sin to its fullest extent to that God’s grace would abound and be seen all the more

21 as sin (realized through the law) is the ruler where death exists,

grace (God’s solution to our sin) is the ruler because Christ is king and his righteousness provides eternal life (compared to sin providing death) 

These verses are about a comparison between the first Adam and the second Adam

through the first Adam’s disobedience, sin and death reigned over the human race.

(depravity of mankind)

through the second Adam’s obedience, righteousness and life are freely given, and the human race

is restored not only to where it started , but over and abundantly beyond such a place.

 

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